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Sometimes, a person will notice tapeworm segments in the stool. Rarely, tapeworms can cause intestinal obstruction, which produces nausea, vomiting, and severe abdominal pain.

On occasion, cysts can form in the brain and the meninges the tissues surrounding the brain. If this occurs, the patient may experience neurologic symptoms such as headaches, seizures, and confusion.

On rare occasions, cysts can form in the eyes, which can cause blindness, or in the spinal cord, which can result in muscle weakness or paralysis. General symptoms, such as itching on the soles of the feet, can occur soon after infection. Cough and pneumonitis lung inflammation can occur when the worms break into the alveolae in the lungs.

When the larvae enter the small intestine, diarrhea and gastrointestinal discomfort can occur. Heavy infestations result in iron deficiency anemia from intestinal blood loss and malnutrition. Long-term blood loss can result in facial edema swelling.

Children with chronic hookworm infections can suffer from growth retardation and intellectual impairment. Infected persons suffer from abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting headaches, and anemia. Some develop jaundice yellowing of the skin , hives, and muscle pains. Over time, blockage of the bile ducts can occur. Within a week after becoming infected, persons experience gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, heartburn, and diarrhea.

After the larvae migrate from the intestines to the muscles, symptoms include fatigue, muscle pain, fever, and edema swelling. A characteristic sign of a trichinosis infection is periorbital edema swelling around the eyes. Splinter hemorrhages in the nails may occur. These appear as narrow, red to reddish-brown lines of blood beneath the nails. Occasionally, the worms invade the central nervous system the brain and the spinal cord , where they can produce serious neurological conditions such as ataxia a lack of muscle coordination , respiratory paralysis, and death.

In lymphatic filariasis, the adult worms block the normal flow of lymphatic fluid, damaging the lymphatic system. This blockage produces tremendous enlargement of the arms, legs, or genitals, which may swell up to several times the normal size. The worms also lodge in the kidneys, causing damage. Loa loa filariasis can also produce swelling of the extremities.

Transit of the worm across the eyeball is a unique sign of this disease. Lymphedema swelling of the limbs can occur if the worms block lymphatic channels in the arms and legs. Intermittent swelling, known as Calabar swellings, of the arms can occur because of an allergic reaction. Calabar swellings may be accompanied by urticaria rash and pruritus itching.

Itching around the anus is a common symptom. The skin around the anus may also be inflamed. Vaginal itching can occur in young girls if the worms enter the vagina rather than the anus. Many worm infections produce an allergic response. Often, these infections will cause an increase in the eosinophils in the bloodstream, causing a condition known as eosinophilia. A complete blood count CBC , including a differential count, reveals the number of eosinophils present in the bloodstream.

Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell, which increases with an allergic response. A blood test, which can be done in most medical laboratories, may reveal specific antibodies to the type of worm present.

A more complex but highly accurate test can be done in a genetics laboratory that can conduct deoxyribonucleic acid DNA sequencing for parasite-specific DNA in a blood sample. In cases of suspected tapeworm infection, a stool sample will reveal tapeworm eggs or body segments containing eggs. For hookworms, except for early infections, a stool sample will contain hookworm eggs. For liver flukes, a stool sample is often positive for eggs.

Adult worms can sometimes be present in a sputum sample or in vomit. Trichinosis can be diagnosed after learning the infected person has eaten contaminated meat. If a sample of the meat is available, microscopic examination will reveal cysts. The characteristic signs of periorbital edema and splinter hemorrhages in the nails aid the diagnosis.

As in many other worm infections, eosinophilia is present. For cases of filariasis, examination of a blood sample may reveal the presence of microfilariae. Their presence in the bloodstream is periodic; thus, the sample must be drawn when the microfilaria are likely to be present. Visualization of a worm transiting the eyeball is diagnostic for Loa loa filariasis. A simple card test detects antigens to lymphatic filariasis; however, antibody tests are not particularly helpful with Loa loa filariasis because cross-reactivity between Loa loa and other worm infections often occurs.

For pinworm infections, the worms are seen in the anus, particularly at night when they lay their eggs. Placing a piece of tape against the anus will collect eggs for microscopic examination. A number of anthelminthic antiworm medications are available to treat worm infestations. Inasmuch as many worm infections can produce anemia, iron supplements are helpful.

Tapeworms can be treated with a single-dose oral medication. Niclosamide is the drug of choice; however, praziquantel and albendazole are also effective. While still in the skin, hookworm infections can be treated by cryotherapy localized freezing. During migration to the intestines and while in the intestines, albendazole Albenza or mebendazole are effective. Triclabendazole is the drug of choice to treat liver flukes.

Resistant strains, however, have been reported in Ireland and Australia. If given early, albendazole or mebendazole can eradicate the intestinal worms and larvae in trichinosis.

These medications are less effective after cysts form; however, they are beneficial if the larvae enter the central nervous system, heart, or lungs. Analgesics pain relievers are given for muscular pain. Over time, the cysts often calcify; this destroys the larvae, and the muscle pain and fatigue resolve. Corticosteroids are given to reduce allergic reactions and inflammation when dead or dying larvae release chemicals within the muscles. The drug of choice for filariasis both lymphatic and Loa loa is diethylcarbamazine DEC ; ivermectin is also effective.

Doxycycline is under investigation as a supplementary agent to use with DEC. DEC is most effective against the microfilariae; it is less effective against the adult worms. Sometimes, after receiving a course of medication, the surviving worms are surgically excised. For pinworms, a single dose of either albendazole or mebendazole is effective. These medications are available by prescription and over the counter.

Self-reinfection can be prevented by good hygiene and thorough handwashing after using the toilet. Hookworm infections can be avoided by not walking barefoot in any area suspected of having infected soil, by defecating only into a toilet connected to a sewage system, and by avoiding the use of human feces for fertilization.

Liver fluke infections can be prevented by the avoidance of eating raw vegetables from any region inhabited by aquatic snails, such as G. Filariasis infections can be prevented by avoiding the fly bites that spread Loa loa. Spraying homes with the pesticide dieldrin is an effective method of destroying the insect vectors. Pinworm infections can be prevented by thorough handwashing before meals and after using the toilet, cleaning toilet seats daily, washing bed linens twice a week, keeping fingernails short and clean, and by not scratching infected areas around the anus.

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Worms are soft, long-bodied invertebrates, or animals without a backbone. There are at least 20, species, or kinds, of worm. They are not all related. In fact, they belong to several different animal itsolutionkh.ml well-known groups of worms are flatworms, roundworms, and segmented worms. Flatworms include flukes, tapeworms, and planarians.

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Animals often rely on their sense of smell to locate food. It's a law of nature: the first one to reach a food source has a better chance of surviving than those who do not. But how exactly does.

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worm - Kinds of Worms - Authorities often disagree on how to classify organisms, and worms are no exception. Many of the known worms can be placed in four major phyla. The remaining species may be classified in a number of additional phyla—usually from six to . Feb 09,  · Description from Opportunities Pictures Of Worms Worm Kids Britannica Homework Help: Opportunities Pictures Of Worms Worm Kids Britannica Homework Help, is one of pictures thet are related with the picture before in the collection itsolutionkh.ml you would like to see the Opportunities Pictures Of Worms Worm Kids Britannica Homework Help in High Resolution [HD Resolution] .

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Worms and Fruit Flies in Biology Most students dissect worms many times over in biology class, as they are ideal for locating organs and experiments involving bodily processes. In addition, because fruit flies reproduce very quickly, they are useful in demonstrations of traits across generations. Nov 16,  · Why do people drive worms out of the ground with electricity? i'm stumped!