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Does homework improve student achievement?

❶Meantime, Challenge Success, a project of the Stanford University School of Education that researches and advocates for positive change in the education system, offers these tips to parents trying to guide their kids through nightly homework assignments:.

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Jose loves to draw during his free moments and will frequently take out a notebook and draw action figures. Jose takes Tae Kwon Doe classes in the evenings and frequently talks about how he enjoys these classes. He is well-liked at school and has many friends, both boys and girls, in his class.

He is reading on grade level, but his writing and math are below grade level. Frequently Jose needs short extensions on in-class assignments.

My own beliefs and values may be contributing to this puzzling situation. Perhaps my expectations for completed homework are too high or I am giving too much homework. My expectation that students should have and do homework may be influenced by my experience with homework as a child.

In the last thirty years the controversy over the value of homework has come up again and again. Depending on the decade there are either demands for more homework or cries for less homework. Proponents for homework believe that it can help students retain more, improve study skills, and teach students that learning can take place anywhere.

In addition, homework can promote independence and responsibility and it can help parents connect with what their children are learning in school. Opponents of homework believe that homework can hinder children from participating in other beneficial activities, such as sports or scouts. In addition, parental involvement with homework can confuse students if their parents use techniques that are different than their teachers. Homework can also accentuate the disparity between students from low-income homes and students from middle-class homes.

Students from low-income homes may have more difficulty completing an assignment Cooper, It is also possible that there is a cultural mismatch between what is emphasized at home and what is emphasized at school. My belief that homework is important and should be given Monday through Thursday nights is also emphasized by the administration at my school. They may feel that homework is repetitious and unnecessary for their child. Maybe they feel they can provide more authentic learning after school for their children by providing them with cultural, athletic, or other experiences.

Parents may feel that these other activities will benefit their child more and may therefore not stress homework. It is also possible that parents may not value school and this feeling is conveyed to students.

Outside influences may also affect Jose. Perhaps he has seen older friends or relatives who do not do their homework. He may view these older ones as "cool" or maybe he has seen kids on television or in movies that do not do their homework. Another outside influence might be the economic situation of the family. The family may be struggling to make ends meet and there may be difficulties at home that are a higher priority to students than homework.

These cultural influences are important for me to look at because they could change the way I administer homework or the amount of homework that I give. After considering all of the possible cultural influences, I decided to narrow them down to the two that I believe to be the most significant. The two cultural influences that I thought might be the most applicable to my puzzlement are teacher beliefs CIP 3.

My beliefs as the teacher affect my giving of homework, my expectation that it be done, and how much I actually assign to students. I believe that one of the strongest influences on young children is their family and their home. Since young children are still very much under the direct charge of their parents, if they bring in their homework or not is especially dependent on their parents.

Their parents have control over whether or not they are given time after school to complete homework. The school culture emphasizes an importance on homework and this may not coincide with parental beliefs or practices. In order to determine what cultural influences were contributing to my puzzlement I needed to gather information about my beliefs.

I chose to look at these by journaling, a technique recommended in the Cultural Inquiry Process Jacob, In my journaling I needed to consider why this situation was puzzling to me and why I think this situation is happening.

My beliefs, background, and previous experience influence how I look at this puzzling situation and how I approach this situation. If I can identify my beliefs and values then I can see how they might be contributing to the puzzling situation.

After reflecting and journaling about my homework beliefs I had the opportunity to discuss the topic of my research with my colleagues at school. Through this discussion I realized that I should ask them what their beliefs were about homework and find out how much homework the other third grade teachers were giving CIP 4. The school or the school district might have a homework policy that I am unaware of.

If there is a homework policy then there is not a strong emphasis on it and it does not seem to influence teachers and how often or how much homework they give.

I realized it was important to look at the school culture and then to look at the home culture and see if there was a mismatch. I sent many notes home, called home and tried to leave messages. I grew up in an environment where receiving and doing homework was part of a daily routine. Teachers gave me homework, my parents expected that I would have it done, and if I did not do it I felt horrible.

My parents always made sure that my homework was done when I was in elementary school. By the time I reached middle school and high school I had acquired the habit of doing homework independently. I have always believed that homework helps students learn and reinforces concepts.

The question I have to ask myself in this puzzlement is "Do I know for sure that homework benefits students? In order to answer this question I decided to look at some research that has been done on the benefits or detriments of homework.

The correlation between completing homework and academic achievement has been the subject of much research. Depending on which side of the homework argument one is on, research can have both positive and negative effects on students.

According to Cooper some positive academic effects of homework include retention and understanding of material, improved study skills, improved attitudes toward school.

Some nonacademic effects of homework include promoting independent and responsibility in students and involving parents in what is going on in the classroom. Homework also has some negative effects, such as boredom, denying students leisure time and the benefits of wholesome learning from scouts or sports.

Homework can lead to cheating and can emphasize the disparity between the homes of low-income and middle class students. Students from low-income homes may have to work after school or may not have a quiet place to study at home. When looking at 50 studies done on homework and student achievement, Cooper found that homework had little or no effect on student achievement at the elementary level.

After reading some research on the effects of homework on academic achievement I had to seriously consider how my beliefs fit into this. I realized that giving homework benefited me as the teacher. These benefits matched the benefits teachers expressed having in the Homework Attitude and Behaviour Inventory for Teachers Weisenthal et al.

Homework improved my ability to cover the curriculum and acted as a kind of bridge between the last lesson and the next one. Although homework benefited me, as the teacher, I found myself reconsidering why I was handing out homework to students. According to Kralovec and Buell , elementary school students show no significant academic gain from doing homework.

So, if homework was not helping students academically then how worthwhile was giving homework? I found out that the other two third grade teachers, both males, at my school were not giving as much homework as I was. One teacher usually gave only spelling and reading as homework.

Every once in a while he would give math homework. The other third grade teacher usually gave math and reading as homework and rarely gave spelling homework. I, on the other hand, gave math, spelling, and reading as homework. According to Weisenthal et al. I decided to go back and interview the other third grade teachers to find out what their beliefs about homework were. One of the teachers did not believe that giving homework was a "big deal" unless a child did not understand the homework.

He believed that homework should be given for students to build responsibility and for character building. The first exception is in the case of a student who is struggling to complete classroom tasks. The second is when students are preparing for a test. For example, students might review a list of words for 10 minutes in preparation for a spelling test the next day.

Parental help with homework appears to be beneficial only if the child has already learned the concepts and simply needs more time to complete the assignments. In fact, some evidence suggests that K—4 students who spend too much time on homework actually achieve less well.

For students in Grades 6 and 7, up to an hour of meaningful homework per night can be beneficial. Things change in high school. Most studies involving high school students suggest that students who do homework achieve at a higher rate. Based on his research, Cooper suggests this rule of thumb: In other words, Grade 1 students should do a maximum of 10 minutes of homework per night, Grade 2 students, 20 minutes, and so on.

Expecting academic students in Grade 12 to occasionally do two hours of homework in the evening—especially when they are studying for exams, completing a major mid-term project or wrapping up end-of-term assignments—is not unreasonable.

Having the entire afternoon and evening to do the homework is comforting and lets the child manage their time correctly at their own pace, instead of the intervals at school.

Homework and yes it can be annoying but it reinforce the concepts you learn in class. I realize this is probably more directed to kids K through 12, but it still applies. If Reading the text book actively, underlining, putting questions marks make you a learner.

I believe homework helps you be responsible to study and be active learner. As a college student I get homework and yes it can be annoying but it reinforce the concepts you learn in class. If I remember from high school lecture is about 55 minutes. Reading the text book actively, underlining, putting questions marks make you a learner.

Fear not homework is the best solution to this problem. Students should get homework because homework is a great preparation for tests, you will have a better understanding about the topic, and its a productive way to spend your spare time. You will want to be prepared for it, so you can do well on it. Sometimes homework takes hours and hours to do , and it even wastes your time for having fun and relaxing from school. School is from am until pm and when your back home you got only 3h left.

Homework gives lots of stress and pain. Homework is useless , we already learn ,understand and study in school. But they give us extra work practice that causes lots of pain as i said.

Students that know and understand the material have no reason to do homework. Those that have not grasped the material are not going to learn it by doing an assignment at home.

If a student does not understand a particular concept when it is explained, that same student is not going to get an epiphany while doing homework for that subject.

You should not have to teach yourself concepts and learn outside o school on your free time. Homework should only be given out when extra practice is needed to help with a skill or prepare for a test. For the students who like outdoor games they should start throwing a football in class.

Homework is a pain in the butt. No kid wants to go home and say they have homework to their parents. Especially on a Friday. They want to go out with friends and family. They want to sleep. They want to play with the family pet.

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Most agree that homework should be purposeful, and that more does not translate to better. “Busy work turns students off from learning,” says Lynn Fontana, chief academic offcer of Sylvan Learning, a national tutoring chain that provides homework help for pre-K12 students.

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The final study, a dissertation project, involved teaching a lesson contained in a language arts textbook. The fourth graders who had been assigned homework on this material performed better on the textbook’s unit test, but did not do any better on a standardized test.

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Books like The End of Homework, The Homework Myth, and The Case Against Homework and the film Race to Nowhere make the case that homework, by taking away precious family time and putting kids under unneeded pressure, is an ineffective way to help children become better learners and thinkers. “Busy work” does not help students learn Students and parents appear to carry similar critiques of homework, specifically regarding assignments identified as busy work—long sheets of repetitive math problems, word searches, or reading logs seemingly designed to make children dislike books.

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Students need to be able to complete the work at home without assistance because some students do not have an English-speaking parents or guardians to help them. In conclusion, research is inconsistent in determining if homework increases student achievement. Does homework improve student achievement? October 8, Since , educators around the world have conducted studies to answer a simple question: Does homework help or hinder a student’s ability to learn? As simple as the question seems to be, the answer is quite complex. So many variables affect student achievement.